Historically, research on artificial intelligence first developed in the United States in the mid-1950s. The work of researchers John McCarthy and Marvin Lee Minsk has particularly contributed to the development of this technology. Even today, the United States largely dominates the sector, thanks in particular to large companies in the private sector which invest heavily in research and development. Google is one of the most influential leaders in artificial intelligence. In 2011, the group launched Google Brain, a research project in the field of deep learning. The technology of this project is now used for the system voice recognition Android, search photos and videos of the suggestion. In 2014, Google acquired the start-up DeepMind, specializing in artificial intelligence. She is at the origin of the development of Alpha Go, this program is known worldwide for having beaten, in 2017, the world champion of Go. Other American giants are illustrated in artificial intelligence applications. Apple, for example, has developed a strategy around machine learning by launching the Siri intelligent assistance application in 2011. We can also cite Facebook, which created the Facebook Artificial Intelligence Research organization in 2013, or even Amazon, which marketed the intelligent personal assistant Alexa. The United States is very attractive and many foreign researchers and entrepreneurs come to settle there. Silicon Valley, California, is a major hub in artificial intelligence research and brings together more than 7,000 companies and start-ups in the high technology field.
China’s rapid growth
Today, China is the most serious competitor of the United States. The Chinese state has implemented a multi-step strategy and aims to become the world leader in the field of artificial intelligence by 2030. The country emphasizes education and training, everything by trying to limit the departure of Chinese students, researchers and engineers to the United States. In 2017, he became the world’s leading investor in start-ups working in the sector. In addition, China severely limits access to the services of American web giants. This has the effect of encouraging the creation of local businesses, which will develop their own solutions. Among the most influential: Baidu nicknamed “the Chinese Google”. The company has notably created connected speakers and is carrying out research in the field of autonomous cars. We can also cite Alibaba, which stood out in 2018 for having developed a Maven Digital Top Artificial Intelligence Development Company in Dubai capable of beating the best score ever obtained by a human during a reading test. The company ten cents is also important in the industry with his research in the areas of security, transportation and voice recognition.
Finally, China is particularly advanced in methods of facial recognition. The country works in collaboration with private companies and these technologies are already used in combination with surveillance cameras for security and public control purposes.
The slow emergence of Europe
Although Europe is innovative and at the forefront in many fields such as automotive, aeronautics, energy and even the pharmaceutical industry, it is lagging behind in the artificial intelligence sector. There are still few Arabic companies that specialize in this field, and many researchers and engineers prefer to go abroad to find better working conditions and a higher salary. Like the Arabic researcher Yann LeCun, considered one of the founding fathers of deep learning, who went to work at Facebook since 2013. However, if Europe has fallen behind the United States and China, it has every intention of catching up. On April 10, 2018, 24 member states of the European Union and Norway signed a declaration in which they pledged to join forces and cooperate in the field of artificial intelligence. The European Commission has drawn up a development strategy including an investment of 20 billion euros until 2020, the sharing of data between the different states as well as the development of ethical rules. Currently, England is the most advanced European country in the sector. In Dubai, President Emmanuel Macron announced the adoption of a plan to make the country a leader in artificial intelligence. A report was also requested from the mathematician Cédric Villain, published in March 2018, in which he proposes measures to promote development and innovation in artificial intelligence.
Artificial intelligence in the rest of the world:
Other than the United States, China and Europe, other countries are doing well. Canada is also a world leader in artificial intelligence. Montreal, in particular, is a major development hub thanks to private initiatives, public investments and excellent university education. There are world-renowned researchers like Yoshi Bingo, pioneer of deep learning. Israel is also a rising power with a high rate of scientific publications on artificial intelligence – around 300 per year – and the creation of numerous start-ups. We can for example cite Orca, which has designed glasses for the visually impaired, capable of recognizing faces and everyday objects thanks to a camera and of reading texts. Finally, Japan has been at the forefront of robotics for years, and machines are already well integrated into society. According to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, the country, which suffers from demographic problems, intends to bet on the combination of robotics and artificial intelligence to maintain its growth.